Robotic approach for mediastinal diseases: state-of-the-art and current perspectives
In the past, mediastinal surgery required a sternotomy approach to maximize exposure. Subsequently, in the 1990s, minimally invasive techniques, including thoracic surgery, became a popular matter of debate in many surgical specialties. Video-assisted thoracic surgical techniques have several advantages over an open approach, including less trauma, shorter hospitalization duration, better cosmetic results, and preserved lung function. It also presents disadvantages such as less surgical exposure and inadequate technical requirements. In this review, we analyzed current literature and authors’ expertise in robot-assisted thoracic surgery, which provides better flexibility, more intuitive movements, and high-definition and three-dimensional view, in mediastinal surgeries.