Diagnostic performance of glucose transporter-1 immunohistochemistry in malignant pleural mesothelioma: a meta-analysis

Mirko Barone, Duilio Divisi, Gino Zaccagna, Luigi Guetti, Pierpaolo Camplese, Decio Di Nuzzo, Giuseppe Cipollone, Roberto Crisci, Felice Mucilli


Background: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare neoplasm with indolent course and worse prognosis. Notwithstanding improvements in histologic and cytologic characterization, a generalized lack of consensus about diagnostic criteria still claims debate, though several new immunohistochemical markers have been introduced. Aim of this study is to evaluate current role and accuracy of glucose transporter-1 (GLUT-1) assay in the evaluation of malignant mesothelial proliferations.
Methods: A PubMed Embase, Google Scholar research was carried out by identifying eight eligible articles fulfilling inclusion criteria. Quality assessment was conducted according to QUADAS-2 test. Data were extracted to evaluate true positive (TP), false positive (FP), true negative (TN) and false negative (FN) rates.
Results: Enrolling 728 patients (297 MPM vs. 431 reactive pleural diseases), TP, FP, TN and FN cases were 215, 33, 398 and 82, respectively. A proportion of 74.25% of MPM patients showed immunoreactivity for GLUT-1. The pooled sensitivity (Se), specificity (Spe), positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), diagnostic accuracy (DA) and disease prevalence (DP) were 0.74 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.57–0.85], 0.91 (95% CI: 0.79–0.96), 0.87 (95% CI: 0.82–0.90), 0.83 (95% CI: 0.80–0.85), 0.84 (95% CI: 0.81–0.97) and 0.41 (95% CI: 0.37–0.44).
Conclusions: In conclusions, GLUT-1 immunohistochemistry for MPM is characterized both by high Se and Spe rates. However, according to DP rates, its properties should be considered in the setting of a panel of markers rather than alone.