A review of the modern, multidisciplinary approach to the management of massive hemoptysis
Massive hemoptysis was once considered a surgical emergency necessitating thoracotomy. Fortunately, technology has evolved to facilitate rapid localization and control of bleeding through minimally invasive diagnostic and therapeutic tools. Management of massive hemoptysis is now a multidisciplinary effort that requires input from interventional pulmonologists, interventional radiologists, and thoracic surgeons. In this comprehensive review, we discuss the complex management of massive hemoptysis, from initial stabilization to use of novel endoscopic and endovascular therapies to achieve hemostasis.